- How can we use technology to ensure Energy Efficient Lifestyle at Residential/Household Level?
Context: Residential sector is one of the biggest consumer segments of power/energy in Bangladesh. Currently there is a significant difference in energy demand between urban and rural households. However such difference will be diminished by 2041, when households in the whole country will enjoy a good standard of living. But they do not follow efficiency measures (both power and gas). The second factor is the market penetration rates of electric appliances such as refrigerators, washing machines, ACs and microwave ovens. Presuming that 100% electrification will be achieved by 2021, those appliances will be accerelatedly introduced. At the same time, it is noted that policies will be in place to promote energy efficient home appliances such as ACs, refrigerators, fans and LEDs. The third and last factor is availability of gas supply. It is pointed out that newly built households will have limited access to gas supply, therefore LPG filling the gap of demand and supply.
Our innovators can potentially design substitute appliances for traditional ones which will be efficient with regard to energy consumption. It will encourage users to make permanent and sustainable behavioral changes to reduce energy usage. Moreover, the innovations can also encourage the users to improve their ability to monitor, track and manage one’s energy consumption. This will help increase awareness on energy issues and keeping everyone informed about the impact of their energy consumption patterns. For example, reducing the use of the air-conditioner. In addition to that, globally there are tools (both software and hardware) using which citizens can efficiency manage energy consumption of their existing HH appliance mix.
2. How can technological solutions help to harness available Marine Energy from Bay of Bengal?
Context: Bangladesh established its sovereign rights through international court verdicts on more than 118,000 sq km of maritime territory, 200 nautical miles (NM) of exclusive economic zone, and 354 NM continental shelves from the Chittagong coast. The Ocean offers enormous potential for the generation of renewable energy – wind, wave, tidal, biomass, thermal conversion and salinity gradients.
According to a Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission report (2010), we can earn Taka 14,000 crore foreign exchange by exporting a deposit of at least 1.76 million tonnes of minerals in the beach sand of Cox’s Bazar. Total of 17 mineral sands deposits including: titanium, ilmenite, zircon, rutile, magnetite, leucoxene, kyanite, garnet and monazite. The minerals are scattered in an area of about 8,000 hectares of land in Cox’s Bazar district.
Moreover, the coastline of Bangladesh is open to the main wave source from the Bay of Bengal and the generation of electricity from such waves could be an important source for Bangladesh and in addition could ease the problems of wave action on the coastline. Wave heights have been recorded at Patenga (Chittagong) by a wave rider buoy and related to wind date. Maximum wave heights of over 2 m, with a maximum of 2.4 m were recorded. Automatic hydromagnetic current meters and wave recorders, type-S4 have been installed at 2 stations to take the readings of current and waves.
3. How technological innovations can solve the power and energy crisis in the Industry sector of Bangladesh?
Context: The industry sector of Bangladesh is the second largest contributor to the GDP of the country, comprising an estimated 30.4% of its USD 226.7 billion GDP. Greater power generation as well as access to electricity is key to fueling the growth of not only key industries but also the growing appetites for the emerging foreign investments. As of 2013, the industrial sector’s energy consumption is 6400 ktoe, which holds the the biggest share (48%) in the sector-wise energy consumption pie. With the current GDP growth of 7.1%, industrial sector of Bangladesh will be needing more and more energy to grow and sustain. But unfortunately the core element of industrial energy need i.e. natural gas of Bangladesh is gradually diminishing. according to various projections, by 2030 our natural gas reserve deplete out will completely which is an alarming concern for the industrial sector. Now the government is trying to diversify the energy mix of the industries with feasible substitutes but on industry level, the manufacturers need to come forward and develop/use/invest of energy efficient solutions as well.
- Sector 1:Textiles, garments, leather, and related industries
- Sector 2: Steel, iron, and related industries(steel)
- Sector 3: Cement, clinker, and related industries (cement)
- Sector 4: Ceramics,glass, and related industries (ceramics)
- Sector 5: Chemicals, fertilizers, pulp and paper, plastic, and related industries (chemicals) and
- Sector 6: Agro-industries, including food processing, sugar, pulp and paper, and jute (agro-industries).
With this backdrop, our innovators need to come forward with solutions which will help Industries/manufactures (of the 6 above mentioned sectors) in:
- Using industrial machinery/tools/processes which an energy efficient way
- Replacing traditional machinery/tools/processes with innovating-energy efficient & cost effective substitutes
4. How can we remove traditional biomass cook stoves with clean innovations to reduce the health risk of Household?
Context: Bangladesh is a developing and overpopulated country located in South Asia. Nearly, 31% of people in peri-urban and rural areas live in poverty. Approximately 86% of the population still rely primarily on solid fuels as a domestic source of energy, particularly in rural households. Around 3.6% of the total burden of disease in the country has been attributable to HAP and 21% of deaths among children less than 5 years are associated with ARI. Over 8,500 children die every year in Bangladesh from diseases caused by household air pollution (HAP) and 89 percent of households use solid fuels, mostly wood, agricultural waste and cow dung for cooking and space heating. Household Air Pollution (HAP) affects 138 million people in Bangladesh and contributes to 78,000 premature deaths on an annual basis within the country.
5. How can technology enhance the implementation of smart grid technology in energy management of Bangladeshi smart cities?
Context: Energy management systems of smart cities use sensors, advanced meters, renewable energy sources, digital controls and analytic tools to automate, monitor and optimize energy distribution and usage. A key component of smart energy infrastructure is smart grids. A smart grid may be defined as an electricity delivery system from point of generation to point of consumption integrated with ICT for enhanced grid operations, customer services and environmental benefits.
The Kashiwa-no-ha smart city project in Japan uses a smart grid based on an area-wide energy management system combining home-energy management systems, real-time monitoring of energy supply and demand and self-sustained energy management with the optimal allocation of generated and stored energy.
6. How can technological solutions expedite the use of renewable and green energy within the limited installation space of Bangladesh?
Context: The Bangladeshi government aims to provide electricity to all of the country’s households by 2021. With financial assistance from the development partners, it plans to generate 220 megawatts of electricity for around 6 million households by 2017 through the solar home system programme. Each solar home system uses a solar panel installed on the roof of an individual home. A 250 watt panel can produce up to 1 kilowatt of power a day.Every month, 50,000-60,000 Bangladeshi households are connected with a solar home system. However, the installation of solar panels on enterprise or industrial scale is not very widespread due to lack of installation space in Bangladesh.
The government has determined targets of 1370 MW of wind power by 2021. Wind power plants are the sine qua non of the place where the movement of the winds, and the adequacy of the data collected and stored for long-term. However, examples of innovative technologies are available globally to harness the wind to ensure renewable green energy irrespective of the geological location and seasons.
7. How can we ensure the universal coverage of affordable access to electricity covering all the remote areas of Bangladesh?
Context: To date, the power generation capacity is 15000 megawatts. 80 percent of the country’s population has access to electricity. The remaining 20 percent of the population is expected to come under the power facilities in the next couple of years; especially the people of the islands and remote hilly regions who lack the privilege of electricity . Innovation technologies are essential to cover these remote places in order to ensure the countrywide coverage of affordable access to electricity. And thus achieving one of the long term vision of the government.